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Citation Style Guides   Tags: apa, citation, english, mla, research, style  

Last Updated: Nov 7, 2016 URL: Print Guide RSS Updates

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Purposes of Citation

The primary purpose of a citation is to make it possible for your sources to be verified.

The secondary purpose of a citation is to give credit where credit is due.


    What is a citation?

    A “citation” is the way you tell your readers that certain materials in your work came from another source.  It also gives your readers the information necessary to find that source again, including:

     ·         information about the author

    ·         the title of the work

    ·         the name and location of the company that published your copy of the source

    ·         the date your copy was published

    ·         the page numbers of the material you are borrowing.


      What do we cite?

      Cite quotations, paraphrases, statistics and all borrowed ideas.

      Different Citation Styles

      Styles listed here are being used at this institution. You should check with your instructors about the style they want you to use.

      • ACS Style
        The ACS Style Guide: A Manual for Authors and Editors. Developed by the American Chemical Society, this style may be used for research papers in the field of chemistry
      • AMA Style  
        The AMA Style Guide for Business Writing. Used in business and developed by the American Management Association. Print
      • APA Style  
        The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) style is a widely accepted style of documentation, particularly in psychology and the social sciences. APA style emphasizes the year the source was published.
      • ASA Style
        This guide provides examples of the American Sociological Association (ASA) citation style, which is used primarily in sociology and related disciplines.
      • The Associated Press Stylebook  
        The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law is a style and usage guide used in newspapers and journalism. Print only.
      • Chicago Manual of Style  
        The Chicago Manual of Style allows for two different types of reference styles: the Author-Date System and the Documentary-Note (or Humanities) Style. Traditionally, those in the humanities and social sciences use the Documentary-Note Style, and those in the sciences use the Author-Date System
      • CBE Manual (Scientific Style & Format)  
        Scientific Style and Format: The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers. The 1994 CBE (Council of Biology Editors) Manual describes two systems of documentation, the citation-sequence system and the name-year system. Format preferred by disciplines in the natural sciences.
      • The Complete Guide to Citing Government Information Resources : A Manual for Social Science & Business Research  
        Government documents can be particularly difficult publications to cite because they do not always include the usual bibliographic information
      • IEEE Editorial Style
        IEEE Editorial style used in engineering. It provides editorial guidelines for IEEE Transactions, Journals, and Letters.
      • A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations
        Turabian Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations is based on the Chicago Manual of Style. It offers those in the natural and social sciences the option of using an author-date system with notes and parenthetical references
      • MLA Style  
        Modern Language Association Handbook for Writers of Research Papers style is used in English Language, literature, arts, humanities and some other disciplines. MLA Style emphasizes the author's name & the page in the original text you are using.

      Reference Librarian

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      Clifton Sawyerr
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      Bluford Library
      NC A&T State University
      North Carolina 27411
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      Biology, Chemistry

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